Tuesday, June 14, 2011

SAP BW / BI Self-help Review Notes

Tuesday, June 14, 2011 View Comments

SAP BW OVERVIEW

SAP’s BW Information Model: Overview

SAP’s BW information model is based on the core building block of InfoObjects which are used to describe business processes and information requirements. They provide basis for setting up complex information models in multiple languages, currencies, units of measure, hierarchy, etc. The key elements in the SAP’s BW information model are:

* DataSources
* InfoSources
* ODS Objects
* InfoCubes
* InfoProviders
* MultiProviders

DataSources are flat data structures containing data that logically belongs together. They are responsible for extracting and staging data from various source systems.

InfoSources are the group of InfoObjects that belong together from a business point of view. It contains the transactional data obtained from the transactions in online transactional processes (OLTP) and master data such as addresses of customers and organizations, which remain unchanged for longer time period.

An ODS object is a dataset which is formed as a result of merging data from one or more info sources. In it information is stored in the form of flat, transparent database tables that are used for preparing reports and quality assurance purposes.

InfoCubes are multidimensional data storage containers for reporting and analysis of data. They consist of keys figures and characteristics of which latter is organized as dimensions facilitating users to analyze data from various business perspectives such as geographical area or types of sales channel.

InfoProviders refer to all the data objects that are present in the SAP BW systems. These include all the data targets viz. InfoCubes, ODS objects and master data tables along with Info sets, remote Infocubes and MultiProviders.

MultiProvider is a virtual information provider which is a combination of any two physical or virtual info providers. MultiProviders do not contain any data and are used to combine data from different info providers. Their main purpose is to make this data accessible for reports and analysis.

SAP BW Architecture

Building SAP BW into multi-tier architecture model in Business Services

SAP BW is based on integrated metadata concept with metadata being managed by metadata services. SAP’s BW has following layers:

* Extraction, Loading and Transformation (ELT) services layer.
* Storage services layer, with services for storing and archiving information.
* Analysis and access services layer, which provides access to the information stored in SAP BW.
* Presentation services layer, which offers different options for presenting information to end users.
* Administration services.
* Metadata services.

BI 7’s New Features

· New Transformation Rules - You heard that right, ladies and gentlemen, no more deciding whether this routine should be in update rules or transfer rules, now you can lump all those into one transformation rules which combine the best of both worlds. With the new 'end routine' and 'expert routine' features, you can further customize how data transformation is done.

End Routine
An end routine is a routine with a table in the target structure format as input and output parameters. You can use an end routine to postprocess data after transformation on a package-by-package basis. For example, you can delete records that are not to be updated, or perform data checks. If the target of the transformation is a DataStore object, key figures are updated by default with the aggregation behavior Overwrite (MOVE). You have to use a dummy rule to override this. Example: End Routine
Expert Routine
This type of routine is only intended for use in special cases. You can use the expert routine if there are not sufficient functions to perform a transformation. The expert routine should be used as an interim solution until the necessary functions are available in the standard routine. You can use this to program the transformation yourself without using the available rule types. You must implement the message transfer to the monitor yourself. If you have already created transformation rules, the system deletes them once you have created an expert routine.

· New DTP (Data Transfer Process Layer) - This is an additional layer on top of the 'normal' infopackage. So now, infopackage will move data to PSA level only. You will then use this DTP thingy, to move the data further to BW data targets, like infocube, ODS (they called this DSO now) or to infoobject. This is good in that you can debug more, but it will add additional layer especially for loading master data or text, which is in my opinion works better with the 'direct update' thingy in the previous version. But maybe SAP direction is in 'standardization', so no more differentiation between Flexible Update Rules or Direct Update I guess.

· New Remodelling Tool - So far I haven't used this yet, but they say, you can easily modify an existing infocube structure (with data in it) using this tool. Whether it will affect the data integrity of the infocube is another question.

*Well there are many other features, or improvement you can found in SAP BI 7, but these are the major ones so far. And also, the BEx Query Designer and Analyzer is also different, but then Business Object is already in the picture, so expect this to be changed in the near future too.

Review Questions & Information

Dimensional Modeling - Fact Table

In data warehousing, a fact table consists of the measurements or facts of a business event. It is often located at the centre of a star schema or a snowflake schema, surrounded by dimension tables. A fact table is the primary table in a dimensional model where the performance measurements of the events are stored.

One fact table = One business process = One single data mart

Fact tables express the many-to-many relationships between dimension in dimensional model.

* Facts are determined by answering the question : “What are we measuring ?”

Dimensional Modeling - Hierarchy

A hierarchy is a set of levels having many-to-one relationships between each other, and the set of levels collectively makes up a dimension.

In a relational database, the different levels of a hierarchy can be stored in a single table (as in a star schema) or in separate tables (as in a snowflake schema).

Each of the elements of a dimension could be summarized using a hierarchy. The hierarchy is a series of parent-child relationships, typically where a parent member represents the consolidation of the members which are its children. Parent members can be further aggregated as the children of another parent.

  • in Product Dimension, Individual unit roll up to brands. Brands roll up to categories, and categories roll up to departments.
  • in the time dimension : Fiscal Hierarchy: Fiscal Year > Fiscal Quarter > Fiscal Month > Fiscal Week > Day
  • in the region dimension : cities > regions > countries > global regions

What’s line item dimension?

This means the dimension contains precisely one characteristic. This means that the system does not create a dimension table. Instead, the SID table of the characteristic takes on the role of dimension table.

What’s Database index?

is a data structure that improves the speed of data retrieval operations on a database table at the cost of slower writes and increased storage space. Indexes can be created using one or more columns of a database table, providing the basis for both rapid random lookups and efficient access of ordered records. The disk space required to store the index is typically less than that required by the table (since indices usually contain only the key-fields according to which the table is to be arranged, and exclude all the other details in the table), yielding the possibility to store indices in memory for a table whose data is too large to store in memory.


How can you decide the query performance is slow or fast ?
You can check that in RSRT tcode.
execute the query in RSRT and after that follow the below steps
Goto SE16 and in the resulting screen give table name as RSDDSTAT for BW 3.x and RSDDSTAT_DM for BI 7.0 and press enteryou can view all the details about the query like time taken to execute the query and the timestmaps

How can you solve the data mismatch tickets between r/3 and bw?

Check the mapping at BW side for the Characteristic’s (ie 0STREET ) transfer rules. Check the data in PSA for the same field.If the PSA is also doesn't have complete data then check the field in RSA3 in source system.

Define attribute Change run.
Generally attribute change run is used when there is any change in the master data..it is used for realingment of the master data..Attribute change run is nothing but adjusting the master data after its been loaded from time to time so that it can change or generate or adjust the sid's so that u may not have any problem when loading the trasaction data in to data targets.the detail explanation about Attribute change run.The hierarchy/attribute change run which activates hierarchy and attribute changes and adjusts the corresponding aggregates is devided, into 4 phases:1. Finding all affected aggregates2. set up all affected aggregates again and write the result in the new aggregate table.3. Activating attributes and hierarchies4. rename the new aggregate table. When renaming, it is not possible to execute queries. In some databases, which cannot rename the indexes, the indexes are also created in this phase.

Important: What are the types of attributes?
Display only and navigational: display only attributes are only for display and no analysis can be done; navigational attributes behave like regular characteristics; for example assume that we have a customer characteristics with country as a navigational attribute; you can analyze the data using customer and country.

What is the difference between filter & Restricted Key Figures? Examples & Steps in BI?
Filter restriction applies to entire query. RKF is restriction applied on a keyfigure. Suppose for example, you want to analyze data only after 2006...showing sales in 2007,2008 against Materials..You have got a keyfigure called Sales in your cube. Now you will put global restriction at query level by putting Fiscyear > 2006 in the Filter. This will make only data which have fiscyear >2006 available for query to process or show.
Now to meet your requirement. ..like below Material Sales in 2007 Sales in 2008M1 200 300M2 400 700You need to create two RKF's.Sales in 2007 is one RKF which is defined on keyfigure Sales restricted by Fiscyear = 2007Similarly,Sales in 2008 is one RKF which is defined on Keyfigure Sales restricted by Fiscyear = 2008Now i think u understood the difference Filter will make the restriction on query level..Like in above case putting filter Fiscyear>2006 willmake data from cube for yeaers 2001,2002,2003, 2004,2005 ,2006 unavailable to the query for showing up. So query is only left with data to be shown from 2007 and 2008. Within that data.....you can design your RKF to show only 2007 or something like that...

Source: http://indelasap.blogspot.com/2009/04/sap-bw-interview-questions-with-ibmhp.html

What is table partition?
A: SAP is using fact table partitioning to improve the performance. you can partition only on 0CALMONTH or 0FISCPER (fiscal period)

What is Open Hub Service?
• The Open Hub Service enables us to distribute data from an SAP BW system into external Data Marts, analytical applications, and other applications. We can ensure controlled distribution using several systems. The central object for exporting data is the InfoSpoke. We can define the source and the target object for the data. BW becomes a hub of an enterprise data warehouse. The distribution of data becomes clear through central monitoring from the distribution status in the BW system.

What are BW Statistics and what is its use?
• They are group of Business Content InfoCubes which are used to measure performance for Query and Load Monitoring. It also shows the usage of aggregates, OLAP and Warehouse management.

What are the steps to extract data from R/3?

• Replicate DataSources
• Assign InfoSources
• Maintain Communication Structure and Transfer rules
• Create an InfoPackage
• Load Data

What are the steps involved in LO Extraction?

o RSA5 Select the DataSources
o LBWE Maintain DataSources and Activate Extract Structures
o LBWG Delete Setup Tables
o 0LI*BW Setup tables
o RSA3 Check extraction and the data in Setup tables
o LBWQ Check the extraction queue
o LBWF Log for LO Extract Structures
o RSA7 BW Delta Queue Monitor

What is the difference between ODS and InfoCube and MultiProvider?

• ODS: Provides granular data, allows overwrite and data is in transparent tables, ideal for drilldown and RRI.
• CUBE: Follows the star schema, we can only append data, ideal for primary reporting.
• MultiProvider: Does not have physical data. It allows to access data from different InfoProviders (Cube, ODS, InfoObject). It is also preferred for reporting.

What are Start routines, Transfer routines and Update routines?

• Start Routines: The start routine is run for each DataPackage after the data has been written to the PSA and before the transfer rules have been executed. It allows complex computations for a key figure or a characteristic. It has no return value. Its purpose is to execute preliminary calculations and to store them in global DataStructures. This structure or table can be accessed in the other routines. The entire DataPackage in the transfer structure format is used as a parameter for the routine.
• Transfer / Update Routines: They are defined at the InfoObject level. It is like the Start Routine. It is independent of the DataSource. We can use this to define Global Data and Global Checks.

What is the difference between start routine and update routine, when, how and why are they called?

• Start routine can be used to access InfoPackage while update routines are used while updating the Data Targets.

What is Star Schema? In Star Schema model, Fact table is surrounded by dimensional tables. Fact table is usually very large, that means it contains millions to billions of records. On the other hand dimensional tables are very small. Hence they contain a few thousands to few million records. In practice, Fact table holds transactional data and dimensional table holds master data. The dimensional tables are specific to a fact table. This means that dimensional tables are not shared to across other fact tables. When other fact table such as a product needs the same product dimension data another dimension table that is specific to a new fact table is needed. This situation creates data management problems such as master data redundancy because the very same product is duplicated in several dimensional tables instead of sharing from one single master data table. This problem is solved in extended star schema/snowflake schema.

What is slowly changing dimension? Dimensions those changes with time are called slowly changing dimension. (ie: Employee name when employee gets married? Or Customer Address when moving to diff location)

What is fact table? Fact table is the collection if facts and relations that means foreign keys with the dimension. Actually fact table holds transactional data.

What is dimension table? Dimension table is a collection of logically related descriptive attributes that means characteristics.

How many tables does info cube contain?

Actually info cube contains two tables’ E table and F (fact) table.

What is the maximum no. of dimensions in info cube?

16(3 are sap defines and 13 are customer defined)

What are the minimum no of dimensions in info cube?

4(3 Sap defined and 1 customer defined).

What are the 3SAP defined dimensions?

The 3 SAP defined dimensions are…..
1. Data packet dimension (P)…..it contains 3characteristics.a) request Id (b) Record type (c) Change run id
2. Time dimension (T)….it contains time characteristics such as 0calmonth, 0calday etc
3. Unit Dimension (U)…it contains basically amount and quantity related units.

What is the maximum no. of key figures?

233

What is the maximum no. of characteristics?

248

What are the data types for the characteristic info object?

1. CHAR, 2. NUMC, 3. DATE, 4. TIME

Usual date format in BW?

YYYYMMDD

Src: http://sapbrainsonline.com/Emerging_Tech/sap-bw-interview-questions.html

Difference between 'F' fact table & an 'E' Fact table?

A cube has 2 fact tables - E and F. When the requests in the cube are not compressed the data exists in the F fact table and when the requests are compressed the data lies in the E fact table.

When the requests are compressed all the request ids are lost (set to NULL) and you would not be able to select/delete the data by request id. The data in the E fact table is compressed and occupies lesser space than F fact table. When you load a data target, say a cube, the data is stored in the F fact table. If the cube is compressed, the data in the F fact table is transferred to the E fact table.

Bex access the records from F-table or E- Table of InfoCube?

Bex access both F and E fact tables. If data exists in both tables, it picks from both.

If the cube is not compressed it takes from F table, if fully compressed it takes from E table, partial compression - both F and E.

When we do roll-up in InfoCube maintenance, records are moved to aggregates? or moved from F table to E table?

Roll-up adds the copy of records from F or E table to the aggregate tables. The records are not moved from F or E.

src: http://www.sap-img.com/business/e-table-vs-f-table.htm


Types of Delta:

Serialized V3 Update This is the conventional update method in which the document data is collected in the sequence of attachment and transferred to BW by batch job.The sequence of the transfer does not always match the sequence in which the data was created.

Direct delta. When a Document is posted it first saved to the application table and also directly saved to the RSA7 (delta queue) from here it is being moved to BW. So you can understand that for Delta flow in R/3 Delta queue is the exit point.

Queued Delta When a document is posted it is saved to application table, and also saved to the Extraction Queue ( here is the different to direct delta) and you have to schedule a V3 job to move the data to the delta queue periodically and from their it is moved to BW.

Unserialized V3 Update This method is largely identical to the serialized V3 update. The difference lies in the fact that the sequence of document data in the BW delta queue does not have to agree with the posting sequence. It is recommended only when the sequence that data is transferred into BW does not matter (due to the design of the data targets in BW).

You can use it for Inventory Management, because once a Material Document is created, it is not edited. The sequence of records matters when a document can be edited multiple times. But again, if you are using an ODS in your inventory design, you should switch to the serialized V3 update.

SRC: http://www.sap-img.com/business/types-of-update-methods.htm

ODS vs INFOCUBE

ODS store data at a more granular level. they have flat structures like a table in R/3. They have a unique feature "overwrite" which is absent in case of cubes.

You can use ODS to load to cube further.

One major difference is the manner of data storage. In ODS, data is stored in flat tables. By flat we mean to say ordinary transparent table whereas in a CUBE, it composed of multiple tables arranged in a STAR SCHEMA joined by SIDs. The purpose is to do MULTI-DIMENSIONAL Reporting.

Another difference is : In ODS, you can update an existing record given the KEY. In CUBES, theres no such thing. It will accept duplicate records and during reporting, SUM the keyfigures up. Theres no EDIT previous record contents just ADD. With ODS, the procedure is UPDATE IF EXISTING (base from the Table Key) otherwise ADD RECORD.

What is the significance of ODS in BW?

An ODS Object serves to store consolidated and debugged transaction data on a document level (atomic level). It describes a consolidated dataset from one or more InfoSources. This dataset can be analyzed with a BEx Query or InfoSet Query. The data of an ODS Object can be updated with a delta update into InfoCubes and/or other ODS Objects in the same system or across systems. In contrast to multi-dimensional data storage with InfoCubes, the data in ODS Objects is stored in transparent, flat database tables.

SRC: http://www.sap-basis-abap.com/bw/difference-between-info-cube-and-ods.htm

Define Meta data, Master data and Transaction data

a. Meta Data: Data that describes the structure of data or MetaObjects is called Metadata. In other words data about data is known as Meta Data.

b. Master Data: Master data is data that remains unchanged over a long period of time. It contains information that is always needed in the same way. Characteristics can bear master data in BW.

With master data you are dealing with attributes, texts or hierarchies.

c. Transaction data: Data relating to the day-to-day transactions is the Transaction data.

What are variables? - Variables are parameters of a query that are set in the parameter query definition and are not filled with values until the queries are inserted into workbooks. There are different types of variables which are used in different application: Characteristics variables, Hierarchies and hierarchy node, Texts, Formulas, Processing types, User entry/Default type, Replacment Path.

What is AWB?. What is its purpose? - AWB stands for Administrator WorkBench. AWB is a tool for controlling, monitoring and maintaining all the processes connected with data staging and processing in the business information whearhousing.

SRC: http://gleez.com/articles/job-skills/interview/sap-interview-questions

What is a slowly changing dimension?
A dimension containing a characteristics which changes over a time; for example take employee job title; this changes over a period of time with different job titles

What is the namespace/naming convention in BW?

All SAP objects start with ZERO (ie: 0GL_ACCOUNT)

Customer/User Created objects start with A-Z (ie: ZBLITZMNYR, ZFavoriteEmployee, ZEmployeeLuckyNumber)

Table names begin with /BIO for SAP and /BIC for customers

Generated objects start with 1-8 (like export data source); prefix 9A is used in APO.

What is an info object?
Business object like customer, product, etc; they are divided into characteristics and key figures; characteristics are evaluation objects like customer and key figures are measurable objects like sales quantity, etc; characteristics also include special objects like unit and time.

What are the data types allowed for key figures? (answers the “how much/how many scenario”)

Amount, number, integer, date and time.

What is the difference between amount/quantity and number ?

amount/quantityalways comes with units”; for example sales will be amount and inventory quantity.

SRC http://gleez.com/articles/career-job-skills/interview/sap-interview-questions

What are the nine decision points of data warehousing?
a. Identify fact table
b. Identify dimension tables
c. Define attributes of entities
d. Define granularity of the fact table (how often
e. Pre calculated key figures
f. Slowly changing dimensions
g. Aggregates
h. How long data will be kept
i. How often data is extracted

What is a SID table and advantages = The SID table (Surrogate ID table) is the interface between master data and the dimension tables; advantages :
a. uses numeric as indexes for faster access
b. master data independent of info cubes
c. language support
d. slowly changing dimension support

Tables created for master data?
a. P table - Time independent master data attributes
b. Q table - Time dependent master data attributes
c. M view - Combines P and Q
d. X table - Interface between master data SIDs and time independent navigational attributes SIDs (P is linked to the X table)
e. Y table - Interface between master data SIDs and time dependent navigational attributes SIDs (Q is linked to the Y table)

What is the transfer routine of the info object?
It is like a start routine; this is independent of the data source and valid for all transfer routines; you can use this to define global data and global checks.

What is the DIM ID?
Dim ids link dimensions to the fact table

What is table partition?
SAP is using fact table partitioning to improve performance; you can partition only on OCALMONTH or OFISCPER;

How many extra partitions are created and why?
Usually 2 extra partitions are created to accommodate data before the begin date and after the end date

Can you partition a cube which has data already?
No; the cube must be empty to do this; one work around is to make a copy of the cube A to cube B; export data from A to B using export data source; empty cube A; create partition on A; re-import data from B; delete cube B

What is the transaction for Administrator work bench?
RSA1

What is a source system?
Any system that is sending data to BW like R/3, flat file, oracle database or external systems.

What is a data source?
The source which is sending data to a particular info source on BW; for example we have a OCUSTOMER_ATTR data source to supply attributes to OCUSTOMER from R/3

What is an info source?
Group of logically related objects; for example the OCUSTOMER info source will contain data related to customer and attributes like customer number, address, phone no, etc

What is communication structure?
Is an independent structure created from info source; it is independent of the source system/data source

What are transfer rules?
The transformation rules for data from source system to info source/communication structure

What is global transfer rule?
This is a transfer routine (ABAP) defined at the info object level; this is common for all source systems.

Options available in the “transfer rule” - Assign info object, assign a constant, ABAP routine or a Formula (From version 3.x);

a. Assign info object - direct transfer; no transformation
b. Constant - for example if you are loading data from a specified country in a flat file, you can make the country as constant and assign the value
c. ABAP routine - for example if you want to do some complex string manipulation; assume that you are getting a flag file from legacy data and the cost center is in a field and you have to "message" the data to get it; in this case use ABAP code
d. For simple calculations use formula; for example you want to convert all lower case characters to upper case; use the TOUPPER formula

Some important ABAP formula available
Concatenate, sub string, condense, left/right (n characters),1_trim, r_trim, replace, date routines like DATECONV, date-week, add_to_date, date_diff, logical functions like if, and;

When you do the ABAP code for transfer rule, what are the important variables you use?
a. RESULT - this gets the result of the ABAP code
b. RETURNCODE - you set this to 0 if everything is OK; else this record is skipped
c. ABORT - set this to a different value from 0, to abort the entire package

What is the process of replication?
This copies data source structures from R/3 to BW

What is the update rule?
Update rule defines the transformation of data from the communication structure to the data targets; this is independent of the source systems/data sources

What are the options in update rules?
a. one to one move of info objects
b. constant
c. lookup for master data attributes
d. formula
e. routine (ABAP)
f. initial value

What is the time distribution option in update rule?
This is to distribute data according to time; for example if the source contains calendar week and the target contains calendar day, the data is split for each calendar day. Here you can select either the normal calendar or the factory calendar.

How would you optimize the dimensions?
Use as many dimensions as possible for performance improvement; for example assume that you have 100 products and 200 customers;

if you make one dimension to carry both characteristics, the size of the dimension will be 20,000;

if you make two dimensions (1 for each) then the total number of rows will be 300 (Prods Dim = 100 + Customers Dim = 200).

Even if you put more than one characteristic per dimension, do the math considering worst case scenario and decide which characteristics may be combined in a dimension.

http://gleez.com/sap-bw/sap-bw-interview-questions/sap-interview-questions-part-2

## Characteristics and Keyfigures ## - http://wiki.sdn.sap.com/wiki/display/BI/Characteristic+and+Key+Figures

Characteristics are Descriptive attributes used to describe the entities such as Customers, Vendor, Materials, Plants etc. These represent who, what, when, where scenario.

Example --> Customer Name, Address, Phone number, age, Color etc.

Key Figures are operational attributes, which indicates numerical measures such as amount related, Weight related, quantity related, etc. These represent how much and how many scenario.

Example --> Sold quantity, Rejected Quantity, Stock Sales, etc.

## LO Cockpit (functions of LO-COCKPIT) ## - http://info-cube.blogspot.com/2008/07/lo-cockpit-extraction.html

Maintain Extract Strucutres: Here you can add additional fields from the communication structures available to the extract structure.

Maintain Data Sources: In the Data source maintenance screen, you can customize the data source by using the following fields: field name, short text, selection, hide field, inversion or cancellation field or reverse posting, and field only known in customer exit.

Activating update: By Setting as active, data is written into extract structures both online as well as during completion of setup tables or restructure table or LO initialization tables.

Depending on the update mode a job has to be scheduled with which the updated data is transferred in the background into the central delta management (Delta Queue).

Controlling update:This talks about the delta update mode you are using and how do you control the data load based on the volume of data. LO Cockpit supports 4 types of update modes ( delta modes, which we have already discussed): Serialized V3 update,Direct Delta,Queued Delta,Unserialized V3 update.

## Customer hierarchy ## is an organizational unit that you can use to group otherwise unrelated customers together for the purpose of pricing or reporting.

This is useful when multiple sold to accounts must receive the same pricing or rebates. http://hoopsdoc.hillyard.com/new/customermaintenance/customerhierarchy/



#############################################
BI 3.X ONLY Terms
#############################################


SAP BW Communication Structure and Transfer Structure
When I first started dabbling with SAP BW, one of the questions that boggles my mind is "What's the difference between a Communication Structure (short: Comm Structure) and Transfer Structure?".
Well, transfer structure is like the data template of the source system. What it means is that, this transfer structure is exactly like the fields of the originating data. So, if you have a flat files with the fields: Cost Center, Business Area, Sales Amount, the transfer would be exactly like that. Also, in the transfer structure, you can have some conversion routine to convert for example, the date format of the originating data. Things like that.


But what about the communication structure? Why do we need it? Well, the answer to that my friend, is that, from the transfer structure, using a certain "transfer rules", we map the fields in the transfer structure to the communication structure. This communication structure is data-source independent, and this is what the "infocube" or the data targets would see. Not the transfer structure. Why is this good? Say, when extracting from legacy system, you still don't have in mind which fields you want to transfer and all. So, what you did is you transfer everything, which means that your transfer structure would be quite humongous. But, for now, you knew, you only need a few fields for reporting purposes.
So, in the communication structure, you will only select the "infoobjects" that you need, not all the fields in the transfer structure. In a way it acts as a filter for the transfer structure.


Transfer Rule
copies/transfers data from Source System(Flatfile/Oracle/Tables) to Target infoObjects in BW (ODS/DSO)


Update Rule
How Information is updated in Target Objects (ie: Addition, via formula, or ABAP routine)

###################################

Sales and Distribution (R/3 Side)

###################################

SD Process Flow - Sales and Distribution overview

1. Inquiry (VA11)

2. Quotation / Contracts / Scheduling Agreements (VA21)

3. Sales Order (VA01)

4. Delivery

a) Create Delivery (VL01N)

b) Picking (LT03)

c) Picking Confirmation (LT12)

d) Packing (Optional in VL02N)

e) Post Goods issue (VL02N)

5. Billing(=Invoice) (VF01)

6. Post Incoming Payment (F-28)

Common Scenarios:

Customer is buying …

sales order – Transaction VA01 – Tables VBAK, VBAP, VBEP, VBKD, VBPA, VBUK, VBUP.

Delivery – Transaction VL01N – Tables LIKP, LIPS, VBUK, VBUP.

Goods issue – Transaction VL02N – Tables MKPF, MSEG

Billing document – Transaction VF01 – Tables VBRK, VBRP.

Customer is returning…

Return order – Transaction VA01 – Tables VBAK, VBAP, VBEP, VBKD, VBPA, VBUK, VBUP.

Returns delivery – Transaction VL01N – Tables LIKP, LIPS, VBUK, VBUP.

Goods Receipt – Transaction VL02N – Tables MKPF, MSEG

Credit memo – Transaction VF01 – Tables VBRK, VBRP.

Customer wants some money back.

Credit memo request – Transaction VA01 – Tables VBAK, VBAP, VBEP, VBKD, VBPA, VBUK, VBUP.

Credit memo – Transaction VF01 – Tables VBRK, VBRP.

Customer was charged less money ..Meaning we want some money back from customer..

Debit memo request – Transaction VA01 – Tables VBAK, VBAP, VBEP, VBKD, VBPA, VBUK, VBUP.

Debit memo – Transaction VF01 – Tables VBRK, VBRP.

Source: http://www.sapgeek.net/2009/09/sd-process-flow-and-tables/

More In-Depth SD Presentation = http://www.scribd.com/doc/2573000/SAP-SD-OVERVIEW




Good Luck on your interview ;)


thanks for munching by foodies!

Related Posts with Thumbnails
 
BlitzMacalma.blogspot.com© Copyright BlitzMacalma.Blogspot.Com All rights reserved.